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Guarino, together with the many expositions of the aristocratic
ideal of education in treatises like Castiglione's Courtier, only
needed to be adapted to the conditions prevailing in the lands
where culture was making for itself a new home.   As in Italy,
the education of young gentlemen took two forms.   Many of
them were educated at home by private tutors, who were usually,
but not always, Churchmen.   In the case of children of high rank
these tutors were often men of special distinction and fine scholar-
ship.  In England, for example, Roger Ascham taught the princess
who became Queen Elizabeth, and John Locke a century later
acted as tutor to the Earl of Shaftesbury's son.   In Germany,
the great mathematician and philosopher Leibnitz superintended
the studies of the sixteen-year-old son of the Baron von Boyneburg.
In France, Bossuet and Fenelon were the tutors of two sons of
Louis XIV.    Others of the boys, again, were sent to special
academies for noble youths like that sketched by Sir Humphrey
Gilbert in Queen Elizabeth's Academy (1572), or to the Knights'
Academies which flourished in considerable numbers in Germany
all through the century after the Peace of Westphalia, or the
academies in France (like that at Tours) which sprang up under
the patronage of Cardinal Richelieu and the French kings.

As the French Court grew in splendour and power, Paris and
Versailles gradually became the centre of this special education.
The Civil War in England had checked the rise of the aristocracy
and created an atmosphere unfavourable to the development of
the academies; and the German nobles were conscious of the
crudeness of their own fashions and culture, and ready to follow
any lead. Hence the Court of Louis XIV stood out in unquestioned
pre-eminence, and set the social and intellectual fashions for
all Europe. Thither came from every land high-born youths, with
their tutors and guardians, to acquire a knowledge of life, and
manners by personal contact with the French nobility as the
recognized exponents of the arts and graces; and from France
they took back to their own homes the ideal of the perfect

Under the influence of this ideal the education of the nobility
both in its tutorial and its academic forms broke away radically
from the older type of education. The training that made the
youth a scholar of the Renaissance pattern was felt to be too
narrow for a man of the world who might be called on to serve